Stoke Clinic

Stroke Warnings (Transient Ischemic Attacks, or TIA)

Before a thrombotic stroke, one or more "stroke warnings" called transient ischemic attacks, or TIAs, may occur. These are the same as episodes of chest pain warning of a coming heart attack. TIAs may last for a few minutes or up to one hour, with longer running symptoms often indicating a mild stroke. TIAs are a warning sign that a stroke may occur. Although usually mild and transient, the symptoms caused by a TIA are similar to those caused by a stroke. Emergency treatment should be sought for anyone experiencing the symptoms of a TIA.

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke warning . TIAs, or “mini strokes” are warning signs of stroke about to occur.

Types of Stroke

Stroke can be caused by a thrombosis (blocked vessel), embolism (blockage that travels to a vessel) or hemorrhage (bleeding outside of blood vessels). They can be classified into two main categories:

Nine out of ten are ischemic strokes. These strokes are caused by blockage of an artery. When blood carrying oxygen and nutrients to the brain is blocked, brain cells begin to die within minutes. Ischemic strokes can be further divided into two groups:

Embolic strokes. These strokes are caused by a blood clot or plaque debris that develops elsewhere in the body and then travels to one of the blood vessels in the brain via the bloodstream. Over 50% of Stroke are of this type.

Thrombotic strokes. These strokes are caused by a blood clot that develops in the blood vessels inside the brain.

To learn more about ischemic strokes go here: Stroke victims show different symptoms depending on the type of stroke (ischemic stroke)

One out of ten are hemorrhagic strokes. These strokes are caused by an aneurysm, or other blood vessel abnormality that has ruptured and is bleeding. When there is bleeding into the brain, cells and tissues do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients. Hemorrhagic strokes can be divided into two groups:

Signs of Stroke

  • Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg, usually on one side of the body
  • Sudden dimness or loss of vision, particularly in one eye
  • Loss of speech, or trouble talking or understanding speech
  • Sudden severe headache with no apparent cause
  • Sudden episodes of difficulty walking or unexplained dizziness or unsteadiness; especially in combination with any of the previously noted symptoms
  • Other less common symptoms of stroke may include sudden nausea or vomiting, fainting, confusion, seizures or coma,

Stroke symptoms happen suddenly and simultaneously, but not all symptoms may occur.   Although strokes are usually sudden attacks, strokes can also occur over hours or several small stroke can occur over time. Symptoms then build in intensity as the stroke becomes more acute.

Recurrent Strokes

Recurrent strokes occur in about 25 percent of stroke victims within five years after a first stroke. The risk is greatest right after a stroke and decreases over time. The likelihood of severe disability and death increases with each recurrent stroke. About 3 percent of stroke patients have a second stroke within 30 days of their first stroke, and about one-third have a second stroke within two years.

  • Early treatment of blood vessel narrowing (stenosis), or complete blockage (occlusion), decreases the risk of a recurrent stroke.
  • We need your help to avoid smoking, and stay physically active, and keep blood pressure, and blood sugar controlled.
  • Higher number less than 130
  • Lower number less than 85
  • A good diet is essential to prevent stroke
  • Finally, we need to diagnose and treat atrial fibrillation, one of the major causes for stroke of all ages.

Comprehensive Care and Treatment for All Strokes

There are treatments available to potentially reverse stroke, including tPA and catheter interventions. However, stroke symptoms must be recognized and diagnosed early and rapidly. That’s why our Primary Stroke Center has streamlined efforts to rapidly and accurately diagnose stroke patients and start stroke treatment as soon as possible.

If you suspect stroke, call 9-1-1 to activate rapid response services and transport to a Stroke Network hospital.

Having a Stroke: Signs and Symptoms

Stroke can lead to paralysis, loss of speech, memory, vision, diminished reasoning—and sometimes even death. It is critical that a stroke victim receive evaluation and proper treatment quickly to minimize the injury to the brain tissue.


Call for medical help immediately if you suspect a person is having a TIA or stroke. Call 9-1-1 immediately if you suspect any of the above stroke symptoms.

Time Save is Brain Saved

Always take note of what time the stroke victim begins showing symptoms and call 9-1-1 immediately. It takes only a few seconds for the brain to stop functioning when a stroke causes a brain hemorrhage. The faster a stroke victim is treated, the less devastating the effects will be.

When the ambulance arrives, these questions will need to be answered:

  • What time did the symptoms begin?
  • Tell us about your medical history.
  • Have you had a stroke before or any bleeding inside your brain?
  • Is there any metal inside or on your body? (Radiologists will need to know this to decide if your head may be examined using an MRI machine, which uses a powerful magnet. Common metal items include pacemakers, dental work, jewelry, and hearing aids.)
  • What medicine, including supplements, do you currently take?  Do you take blood thinners?
  • Do you suffer from a bleeding disorder?

If you suspect stroke, call 9-1-1 to activate rapid response services and transport to a Stroke Network hospital.

Stroke, also called brain attack, occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked. Stroke is an emergency and should be treated rapidly. The lack of blood supply results in brain cell death and loss of brain function. Without a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain, cells will begin to die after just a few minutes. Brain cell death leads to a loss of brain function; possible impairments with movement, speech, thinking, memory and other bodily functions; paralysis; or even death.

Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death, ranking behind diseases of the heart, lungs, and all forms of cancer. According to the National Stroke Association, strokes kill more than 137,000 Americans each year.

Winchester Neurological Consultants

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8:30 am-5:00 pm


8:30 am-5:00 pm


8:30 am-5:00 pm


8:30 am-5:00 pm


8:30 am-5:00 pm